A recipe for creating a cost-effective solution for auto-scaling Kinesis streams using Lambda functions
In my last post, we discussed 3 useful tips for working effectively with Lambda and Kinesis. Now let’s take a look at how we can use Lambda as cost-effective solution to auto-scale Kinesis streams.
Auto-scaling for DynamoDB and Kinesis are two of the most frequently requested features for AWS — and as I write this post, I’m sure the folks at AWS are working hard to make it happen. Until then, here’s how you can roll a cost effective solution yourself.
From a high level, we want to:
- scale up Kinesis streams quickly to meet increases in load
- scale down under-utilised Kinesis streams to save cost
Auto-Scaling Kinesis Streams
Reaction time is important for scaling up. Based on personal experience, I find polling CloudWatch metrics to be a poor solution. Here’s why:
- CloudWatch metrics are usually over a minute behind
- depending on polling frequency, reaction time is even further behind
- high polling frequency has a small cost impact
I briefly experimented with Kinesis scaling utility from AWS Labs before deciding to implement our own solution. I found that it doesn’t scale up fast enough because it uses this polling approach, and I had experienced similar issues around reaction time with dynamic-dynamodb too.
Instead, consider using a push-based approach using CloudWatch Alarms. Whilst CloudWatch Alarms is not available as trigger to Lambda functions, you can use SNS as a proxy:
- add a SNS topic as notification target for CloudWatch Alarm
- add the SNS topic as trigger to a Lambda function to scale up the stream that has tripped the alarm
Metrics for Triggering Auto-Scaling
You can use a number of metrics for triggering the scaling action. Here are a few metrics to consider.
The simplest way is to scale up as soon as you’re throttled. With a stream-level metric you only need to set up the alarm once per stream and wouldn’t need to adjust the threshold value after each scaling action. However, since you’re reusing the same CloudWatch alarm you must remember to set its status to OK after scaling up.
You can scale up preemptively (before you’re actually throttled by the service) by calculating the provisioned throughput and then setting the alarm threshold to be, say 80% of the provisioned throughput.
After all, this is exactly what we’d do for scaling EC2 clusters and the same principle applies here — why wait till you’re impacted by load when you can scale up just ahead of time? However, we need to manage some additional complexities that are included in the EC2 auto-scaling service:
- If we alarm on both
IncomingRecordsthen it’s possible to over-scale (impacts cost) if both triggers around the same time. This can be mitigated, but it’s down to us to ensure only one scaling action can occur at once and that there’s a cool-down after each scaling activity
- After each scaling activity, we need to recalculate the provisioned throughput and update the alarm threshold(s)
With shard level metrics you get the benefit of knowing the shard ID (in the SNS message) so you can be more precise when scaling up by splitting specific shard(s). The downside is that you have to add or remove CloudWatch alarms after each scaling action.
How to Scale UP a Kinesis Stream
To actually scale up a Kinesis stream, you’ll need to increase the number of active shards by splitting one of more of the existing shards. One thing to keep in mind is that once a shard is split into 2, it’s no longer
Active — but it will still be accessible for up to 7 days (depending on your retention policy setting).
Broadly speaking, you have two options available to you:
- Use UpdateShardCount and let Kinesis figure out how to do it
- Choose one or more shards and split them yourself using SplitShard
Option 1 — UpdateShardCount — is far simpler but the approach comes with some heavy baggage:
- Since it current only supports
UNIFORM_SCALINGit means this action can result in many temporary shards being created unless you double up each time.
- Doubling up can be really expensive at scale — and possibly unnecessary depending on load pattern
- Plus, there are a lot of other limitations
Option 2 — SplitShard — usesshard level metrics to split only the shards that have triggered the alarm(s). A simple strategy would be to sort the shards by their hash range and split the biggest shards first.
How to Scale DOWN a Kinesis Stream
To scale down a Kinesis stream, simply merge two adjacent shards. Just as splitting a shard leaves behind an inactive shard behind, merging shards will leave behind two inactive shards.
Since scaling down is primarily a cost saving exercise, I strongly recommend that you don’t scale down too often. You could easily end up increasing your cost instead if you have to scale up soon after scaling down — hence leaving behind lots inactive shards.
Since we want to scale down infrequently, it makes more sense to do so with a cron job (i.e. CloudWatch Event + Lambda) versus using CloudWatch Alarms. After some trial and error we settled on scaling down once every 36 hours, which is 1.5x our retention policy of 24 hours.
How to Determine WHICH Kinesis Stream to Scale Down
When the cron job runs, our Lambda function would iterate through all the Kinesis stream, For each stream, we would:
- calculate its provisioned throughput in terms of both bytes/s and records/s
- get 5 min metrics (
IncomingRecords) over the last 24 hours
- if all the data points over the last 24 hours are below 50% of the provisioned throughput — then scale down the stream
The reason we went with 5 min metrics is because that’s the granularity the Kinesis dashboard uses and allows me to validate my calculations. Keep in mind that you don’t get
records/s values from CloudWatch directly, but will need to calculate them yourself.
Also, we require all data points over the last 24 hours to be below the 50% threshold. That helps us to be absolutely sure that utilization level is consistently below the threshold, rather than a temporary blip which could be a result of an outage.
To set up the initial CloudWatch Alarms for a stream, we used a repo which hosts the configurations for all of our Kinesis streams. The repo contained a script for creating any missing streams and associated CloudWatch Alarms using CloudFormation templates.
- Each environment has a config file detailing all the Kinesis streams that need to be created, along with the min & max no. of shards for each.
- There is also a create-streams.js script that can be run to create any missing streams in the environment with the desired no. of shards.
- The script will also create the associated CloudWatch Alarms using a CloudFormation template.
- The configuration file also specifies the min and max no. of shards for each Kinesis stream. When the create-streams script creates a new stream, it’ll be created with the specified
desiredShardsno. of shards.
I hope you enjoyed this post — if you are doing something similar to auto-scale your Kinesis streams, please share your experiences and let me know in the comments!